Safeguarding News October 2020
Welcome to the October 2020 news round up.
The Department for Education (DfE) has now published the first ever voluntary code of safeguarding practice for out-of-school settings (OOSS), Keeping children safe during community activities, after-school clubs and tuition: Non-statutory guidance for providers running out-of-school settings October 2020 including sports, creative arts, supplementary school, out of school clubs, tuition and community activities.
Now would be a good time to review your organisation's safeguarding arrangements and SAFEcic is here to help by offering:
- 25% off all Online Safeguarding course credits purchased online all Online Safeguarding course credits purchased online, until 30 November 2020
- SAFEcic membership at the heavily subsidised annual fee of £50 for not for profit organisations
- New online blended Zoom learning courses starting with the ever popular Leading on Safeguarding (Child and Adult) on 9 December 2020, more dates to follow!
Reports, Reviews, Resources, Research, Consultations and Inquiries
1. The Church of England failed to protect children and young people from sexual predators within their ranks, according to the new report The Anglican Church by the Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse.
From the 1940s to 2018, 390 people who were clergy or in positions of trust associated with the Church have been convicted of sexual offences against children.
Many of these cases demonstrate the Church of England’s failure to take the abuse seriously, creating a culture where abusers were able to hide. Alleged perpetrators were given more support than victims, who often faced barriers to reporting they simply couldn’t overcome.
The Church’s failure to respond consistently to victims and survivors of child sexual abuse often added to their trauma. Archbishop Justin Welby described this failure as “profoundly and deeply shocking”.
The report also cites recent cases where the Church’s response was entirely inappropriate. Reverend Ian Hughes was convicted in 2014 for downloading 8,000 indecent images of children. Bishop Peter Forster, who retired last year, suggested to the Inquiry that Hughes had been “misled into viewing child pornography” on the basis that pornography is freely available and viewed. More than 800 of the images downloaded by Hughes were graded at the most serious level of abuse.
The Inquiry finds that to date, the Church in Wales has never had a programme of external auditing, so there has been no independent scrutiny of its safeguarding practices. It also highlights record-keeping as a significant problem for the Church; the Inquiry’s sampling exercise demonstrated both poor record-keeping and a total absence of records in some cases.
The report concludes that in neglecting the well-being of children in favour of protecting its own reputation, the Church of England was in direct conflict with its own underlying moral purpose; to provide care and love for the innocent and the vulnerable. Whilst improvements in child protection practice have been made within the Church, if it is to rebuild the trust of victims, there remains a long way to go.
This report contains eight recommendations, directed to both the Church in England and the Church in Wales, including a recommendation that the Church in England and Wales funds mandatory support for victims and survivors that takes into account their lifetime needs.
The report is based on the Inquiry’s public hearings held during July 2019.
Professor Alexis Jay, Chair of the Inquiry said:
“Over many decades, the Church of England failed to protect children and young people from sexual abusers, instead facilitating a culture where perpetrators could hide and victims faced barriers to disclosure that many could not overcome.
“Within the Church in Wales, there were simply not enough safeguarding officers to carry out the volume of work required of them. Record-keeping was found to be almost non-existent and of little use in trying to understand past safeguarding issues.
“To ensure the right action is taken in future, it’s essential that the importance of protecting children from abhorrent sexual abuse is continuously reinforced.
“If real and lasting changes are to be made, it’s vital that the Church improves the way it responds to allegations from victims and survivors, and provides proper support for those victims over time.
“The panel and I hope that this report and its recommendations will support these changes to ensure these failures never happen again.”
2. Action Fraud has been made aware that some Attorney General’s Office (AGO) phone numbers, including the public enquiry number (020 7271 2492) are being used by fraudsters to try and extract money from members of the public.
In most of the reported cases, the fraudsters claim they are calling from the AGO or HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC), with the AGO public enquiry number showing in the caller ID. The callers have asked members of the public to pay a certain amount of money to either drop criminal charges or pay outstanding tax. The calls are NOT being made by the AGO or HMRC.
The AGO will never call you and ask you for your bank details or to pay us money over the phone.
Please include the following information which will help with the investigation:
- date of the call
- phone number used
- content of the call
If you’ve been a victim of a scam and suffered financial loss, report it to Action Fraud.
The scam has been referred to HMRC’s Cyber Operations team, which works with the telecoms providers to close down numbers used in scams such as this one, and to block some of the most credible numbers from being spoofed.
3. The Care Inspectorate has published an overview report, Joint inspections of services for children and young people in need of care and protection: Review of findings from the inspection programme 2018-2020
Between 2018 and 2020, the Care Inspectorate led a series of joint inspections of services for children and young people in need of care and protection in community planning partnerships across eight areas in Scotland – in partnership with Education Scotland, Healthcare Improvement Scotland and HM Inspectorate of Constabulary in Scotland.
Inspections considered the differences services were making to the lives of children and young people in need of protection and for whom they have corporate parenting responsibilities.
The report says: “It is notable that most partnerships have invested in, and made commitments to, supporting children and young people in need of care and protection, particularly in a climate of reducing resources. There were clear strengths made in areas such as an increasing proportion of community based and kinship care placements as well as a reduction in out of area placements. Many children and young people were benefitting from investment in relationships by committed and caring staff and many experienced positive health and wellbeing outcomes as a result.
“We are confident that improvements have been made, across most of these partnerships, in relation to child protection. In general, governance processes were well embedded and the operational delivery of child protection services was strategically and collaboratively led. Most children and young people were being kept safe as a result of co-ordinated responses to risk of significant harm. There remains room for improvement, particularly in addressing the impact of cumulative harm, including domestic abuse, child sexual exploitation or neglect, and the identification of risk to older young people.
“We are not as confident about the approach of all partnerships in relation to their responsibilities as corporate parents. The collaborative leadership and governance arrangements for corporate parenting were less well evidenced across these joint inspections and not all children and young people for whom partnerships held corporate parenting responsibilities were supported to achieve their potential. In particular, young people leaving care were particularly disadvantaged and their health and wellbeing outcomes remained poorest among their care experienced peers.
A significant volume of evidence was gathered to assist in evaluating how well partnerships collaborate to meet the needs of children and young people in need of care and protection. Inspectors spoke directly with 305 parents and carers and 647 children and young people all over Scotland and discussed their experience of services. They also reviewed more than 754 case records relating to children and young people and analysed more than 7,000 staff survey responses.
Peter Macleod, chief executive of the Care Inspectorate said: “Our strategic joint inspections, carried out with our partners, help us establish the impact services have on the lives of children and young people in Scotland, and to the lives of their families.
“We want to evaluate how well services are planned and delivered so that we can continue to see improvement and ensure that all children and young people are supported to reach their full potential.
“We recognise that the impact of the coronavirus pandemic has been significant on partnerships, services and, importantly, on children, young people and their families.
“This overview of the past two years of inspection work, although dating from before the pandemic, remains relevant as partnerships implement their recovery plans going forward and identifies areas of achievement and areas where more can, and must, be done.”
4. The North Wales Safeguarding Adults Board (NWSAB) commissioned NWSAB Practice guide for managing multiple reports of incidents between adults at risk as a consequence of the Board’s response to the Health and Social Care Advisory Service (HASCAS) document ‘Independent Investigation into the Care and Treatment Provided on Tawel Fan Ward: a Lessons for Learning Report’.
5. The SIA intend to introduce a code of conduct for security operatives. When they do, all licence holders and licence applicants will have to follow the code. They have not set a date for when this will happen. They are still working out what the code of conduct should include. They have a legal responsibility to make sure that only “fit and proper” people hold an SIA licence. The Private Security Industry Act 2001 uses this phrase but does not explain exactly what it means. The code of conduct will describe how a “fit and proper” person should behave. It will improve standards within the private security industry and help to keep the public safe.
6. The independent report into the Church's handling of the allegations concerning the late Hubert Victor Whitsey, former Bishop of Chester, A Betrayal of Trust , has been published today. The learning lessons review was carried out by His Hon David Pearl and independent safeguarding consultant Kate Wood.
The Church supported the police in an investigation into allegations of sexual offences against children and adults by Whitsey dating from 1974 onwards when he was Bishop of Chester and from 1981 while he was retired and living in Blackburn diocese. A public apology was issued in October 2017 following this investigation which included a commitment to a learning lessons review.
7. Review of the partnership response to child sexual exploitation (CSE) over two sites in January 2019. Commissioned following an Ofsted inspection of children's services and subsequent monitoring visits. Focuses on the current policies, procedures and practices, with a view to improving the outcomes and responses for children who had been or were at risk of CSE. Review included a literature review of policies and procedures relevant to CSE, analysis of seven case audits, focus groups with professionals, and conversations with young people and their caregivers. Identifies 14 areas for consideration representing issues which are national areas for development. Ethnicity and nationality not stated. Observations include: there was evidence of good recording and record keeping throughout the case audits; six out of the seven cases audited involved children in care, and the relevant statutory processes and CSE process observed worked well together; social workers welcomed moves towards reflective practice within children's services; professionals wanted further support to apply their existing skills to the online context to enable them to respond to online abuse and exploitation. Key areas of focus going forward include: consider reviewing training to ensure that it provides staff with the relevant knowledge and support they need to complete CSE risk assessments to quality assurance standards; ensure that professionals are aware that where there are safeguarding risks, consent is not required prior to making a referral; enhance work with children at 'low risk' of CSE to ensure an effective pathway and escalation process.
8. The CQC has now published its report Out of sight – who cares?: Restraint, segregation and seclusion review,
which looks at the use of restraint, seclusion and segregation in care services for people with a mental health condition, a learning disability or autistic people.
9. Eight Case Reviews have been added to the NSPCC's National Case Repository this month they are:
a) Death of a 14-month-old girl in August 2019. Isabella's mother found her unresponsive at home and she was transferred to hospital by ambulance but died after resuscitation failed. Isabella had complex medical needs and global developmental delay. Parents were known to children's services. Mother had been subject to a child protection plan and there were concerns for her around child sexual exploitation. These increased when her relationship with Father became known when she was 16 and he was 21-years-old. Father had issues with alcohol misuse. Isabella was born prematurely and spent 13 weeks in neonatal intensive care, under the care of several consultants with different medical expertise. Concerns were raised about parents' parenting capacity due in part to their young age and missed medical appointments, lack of support, and home environment. Mother gave birth to Isabella's sibling in July 2019. Learning includes: considerations should be given as to how professionals engage with fathers. If a father has not engaged, it should be clearly recorded that he remains an unassessed risk; if a parent does not consent to Local Authority support for a Child in Need (CIN), careful consideration should be given to escalating the protection provided; information about avoidant behaviour should be shared with all other professionals involved. Ethnicity and nationality not stated. Recommendations include: ensure that the language change - 'Was Not Brought' is reinforced across partner agencies and make certain that practitioners are trained to realise 'medical neglect' and recognise missed appointments as an indicator.
b) Sudden unexpected death of a 1-month-old boy in 2019. During the night Liam's mother awoke to feed him but could not remember the details around this; the following morning she found Liam unresponsive on the sofa. Liam and his half-sibling were subjects of child protection plans for neglect. Half-sibling Emma was subject to a Special Guardianship Order. Mother was known to police as a victim of domestic abuse, and had a history of poor mental health, drug misuse and self-harm as a child, as well as child sexual exploitation. At the time of Liam's death the family was receiving support from health providers, children's social care, psychology service, paediatric and speech and language services. Police were satisfied there were no suspicious circumstances surrounding Liam's death. Inquest concluded that the cause of death was unascertainable. Ethnicity and nationality not stated. Learning includes: pre-birth planning and assessment is important in ensuring early understanding of possible risks; practitioners should be equipped to recognise possible feigned compliance and to address this in assessments and plans; record keeping was not of sufficient content or quality to know what was happening to the family and what risks were identified. Recommendations include: where information is missing and reliant on another practitioner or agency to provide it this should be addressed by practitioners through the Escalation Policy; practitioners should be equipped to assess the significance of substance misuse and poor maternal mental health and its impact on parenting capability and put in place an appropriate plan of support and intervention.
c) Significant and chronic neglect of four siblings over many years. Mother and father were estranged and had lived apart. Children were placed on a child protection plan on two occasions under the category of neglect. Several recordings and anonymous referrals regarding the poor living conditions at the mother's home. Mother displayed disguised compliance in telling professionals this would be improved, as well as not bringing children to medical appointments. Two of the children were reported to be soiling themselves daily at school. The eldest sibling committed intra-familial child sexual abuse (CSA) on his three younger siblings on numerous occasions from 2012 to 2016. Both parents were charged with neglect offences. Learning includes: practitioners should improve their awareness and personal knowledge in being able to recognise and identify symptoms of CSA and neglect; risk assessments must be carried out with the rationale recorded and supervised; 'was not brought' is a more relevant term than 'did not attend' as the emphasis is placed on the parent or carer who does not bring a child to an appointment. Ethnicity and nationality not stated. Recommendations include: all safeguarding partner agencies ensure that staff are aware of the signs and symptoms of CSA and know what to do if they are seen or suspected; assure that staff complete background chronologies on their case files on children and families subject to child protection enquiries; ensure that staff capture the voice of the child in safeguarding cases and focus on the experience and impact on children.
d) Chronic neglect and intra-familial child sexual abuse of male and female children, who were aged between 3-9-years-old at the time abuse was first reported. Mother and her male partner were subsequently convicted of multiple offences of sexual abuse. Family were known to multi agency services, and had period of child protection planning under the category of neglect, later stepped down to child in need plans. Concerns re-emerged and children were removed from the family home, on an interim basis, into care. Shortly after the children were removed they made disclosures about their previous home life and of being sexually abused. Ethnicity or nationality not stated. Learning includes: information exchange between professionals must be comprehensive and timely; professionals need to recognise the different indicators of possible child sexual abuse so that potential indicators are not misunderstood, dismissed or ignored; professionals need to use curiosity, hypothesising and a critical analytical mindset throughout the risk assessment process; if an agency decides not to implement an important case conference recommendation, the relevant agency professional must notify the case conference chair with reasons. Uses the Significant Incident Learning Process (SILP). Recommendations include: professionals must have knowledge to enable them to identify and respond effectively to children who are or who may be at risk of suffering multiple categories of abuse; professionals must have knowledge of child sexual abuse, including female perpetrator behaviours; Achieving Best Evidence (ABE) interviews and medical examinations must be child centred and undertaken in a timely way; effective management and multi-agency oversight must be child focused, analytical and reflective.
e) Serious injuries to a 3-month-old infant in December 2018. Baby L was taken to hospital by ambulance. Subsequent medical assessments concluded that some of the injuries had happened prior to the hospital admission. Parents were arrested and bailed pending further criminal enquiries. At the time of the reported injuries, Baby L and their older half-sibling had been subject to Child Protection Plans and to a Public Law Outline (PLO) process. Baby L's parents had lived separately in several other areas of England prior to meeting in 2017. Father had two children from a previous relationship where there had been concerns about neglect and historic injuries. Mother had a child from a previous relationship; contacts made to Children's Services in relation to Baby L's half-sibling. Paternal history of mental health problems and domestic abuse. Ethnicity or nationality not stated. Learning centres around: the effectiveness of pre-birth and post-birth multi-agency assessment, multi-agency case management, inter-agency communication and information sharing; how well practitioners considered the inherent vulnerability of babies to abuse and non-accidental injury, particularly in the context of the trilogy of risk; barriers to recognising and addressing over optimism in parents. Uses the Welsh Model. Recommendations include: ensure that pre-birth assessments are completed on time by social workers and include all relevant information, and parents' accounts and views are appropriately tested and triangulated by evidence from other sources; ensure that guidance on injuries to non-mobile babies has been widely disseminated to all front-line practitioners and embedded in practice.
f) Sexual abuse of two children by a carer whilst in a long-term kinship care placement. An older sibling living in the same placement witnessed Child A being sexually abused by the carer and informed Mother and then the Police. Carer received a custodial sentence for the sexual abuse of Child A and Child B. Prior to entering care, Child A, Child B and Sibling 1 witnessed extensive and serious domestic abuse between their Mother and Father. Initially, the children were placed with Mother under an Interim Care Order, and later placed with Carer 1 and Carer 2 as kinship carers. The carers were subsequently approved as foster carers, and the placement became permanent for the children for 12 years. Learning includes: importance of robust exploration during the approval process for kinship foster carers; placement reviews for looked after children in kinship care placements should identify when National Minimum Standards are not met to avoid children remaining long term in inadequate accommodation; without consistent, rigorous and child focussed oversight by supervising social workers, shortcomings in the parenting capacity of kinship foster carers may not be identified or challenged. Uses the Welsh Child Practice Review model. Recommendations include: ensure that social workers support children in kinship care to identify a trusted professional who will enable them to get their voice heard in the decisions which impact on their lives; ensure that social workers have access to regular supervision which provides opportunities for reflection and critical challenge with a specific focus on the effectiveness of care plans for looked after children.
g) Death of a 5-year-old child in July 2016. Child E's step-father pleaded guilty to manslaughter and no inquest was carried out. Family had contact with children's services over 14-month period prior to Child E's death, with fluctuating concerns by professionals about care being provided by Step-father and home environment. Step-father was judged as “medium risk” to the children concerning domestic abuse, alcohol use, driving without a license, and sexual offending. Concerns over contact with unknown men who posed risks to the children. Mother had some level of learning difficulty. Significant incident in May 2015 when children were pulled from the family car by Step-father and left on the pavement. Learning includes: focus on the physical care of the children and home conditions diverted attention from other serious issues, including risk of being in contact with people who presented risks to the children; professional challenge and escalation is important in effective intra and inter-agency work; agencies that saw signs of concern dealt with them appropriately most of the time but some intra and inter-agency communication and information sharing could have been better. Ethnicity and nationality not stated. Recommendations include: more training on neglect and its impact on children, more understanding of legal processes and what local authorities must evidence to secure statutory orders; raise awareness of the Escalation Procedure and the importance of robust, respectful professional challenge between and within agencies; consider the introduction of a panel, chaired by a different professional to take a “fresh look” at cases that are making insufficient progress.
Worthy Of Note
1. The Marie Collins Foundation (MCF) and the NWG Network are working together to support professionals and parents in what to do when things go wrong online. The new Online Sexual Harm Reduction Guide is aimed at professionals; How Can I Help My Child? Is aimed at parents and carers.
2. The Government has announced funding of £6 million to enable councils to prepare for the introduction of the Domestic Abuse Bill . The Bill is currently awaiting its second reading in the House of Lords having completed its passage through the House of Commons in July 2020. It is expected to come into force in April 2021. From that time local authorities in England will have a duty to assess and provide support and safe accommodation to victims of domestic abuse and their children. Once the duty comes into forces, the new funding announced will help councils in England to commission additional support for those victims of domestic abuse and their children who might currently be turned away from refuges and other safe accommodation because their needs cannot be met. The Government says that this new funding will mean that councils can plan accommodation and specialist services ahead of the Act coming into force and ensure that in all areas across the country services are joined up. Councils can prepare by linking in with other agencies, such as police or health commissioners, and ensure their staff receive training in the new duty. Minister for Rough Sleeping and Housing Kelly Tolhurst said:
"Survivors of domestic abuse need safe refuge in order to escape this heinous crime, and support to start to rebuild their lives. Councils already provide much needed support, but the landmark Domestic Abuse Bill will mean for the first time councils will have a duty to provide support in safe accommodation for anyone fleeing abuse. The funding I am announcing today will help councils prepare for this new duty that will see thousands more survivors helped and a generation of their children able to grow up safely and free from fear of abuse."
And The Reason To Remain Vigilant In All Aspects Of Safeguarding
1. A former mental health care worker has been sentenced to 11 years' imprisonment for 21 counts of abuse against three highly vulnerable girls in his care.
Marcus Daniell committed the offences between October 2015 and June 2017 while working as a senior care assistant at a hospital in Torquay catering for young people with mental health problems.
His three victims were sixteen and seventeen years old at the time of the offences, and all had severe mental health issues.
Clare Smith, of the CPS, said: “Section 38 of the Sexual Offences Act 2003 is an offence particularly designed to protect vulnerable people, and it is hard to imagine a more vulnerable set of victims than teenagers in a psychiatric hospital. The sentence of 11 years imposed today at Exeter Crown Court takes account of the serious nature of this activity and the harm caused to each of the victims by this offending.
“The victims and their families have assisted and cooperated with the police and CPS in this extensive and complex investigation. As a result, we have been able to build a strong case that resulted in guilty pleas. The CPS greatly appreciates the support of the victims and their families in bringing this difficult case to court and securing this conviction”.
2. A former BBC presenter and church minister has been sentenced to 10 years and four months in prison for sexually abusing children and adults.
Ben Thomas, 44, from Flintshire, admitted 40 offences, including indecent assaults and voyeurism.
The offences happened over a 29-year period in north Wales, Shropshire, London, and Romania, Mold Crown Court was told. Thomas's crimes took place between 1990 and last year. In July he admitted 10 counts of sexual activity with a child, eight sexual assaults, and four attempts to commit sexual assault. He also pleaded guilty to nine indecent assaults, seven counts of voyeurism and two counts of making indecent videos of children.
Thomas worked for BBC Wales as a presenter on Ffeil, the Welsh language news programme for young people, and as a reporter on Wales Today. He left the BBC in 2005 to preach on the streets of London, before returning to Wales in 2008 as pastor of the Criccieth Family Church in Gwynedd. Thomas left his post last year.
Criccieth Family Church had previously said Thomas's arrest had come as a "complete shock", and that safeguarding checks had been "satisfactorily completed". "We are devastated by the revelation of such sin and grieve over the pain caused to the innocent victims, the betrayal and deception," the church said in a statement.
The NSPCC had described Thomas's crimes as "horrendous" while North Wales Police thanked his victims and families for their "strength and courage". Det Con Lynne Willsher said: "Ben Thomas's offending involved the serious sexual abuse of vulnerable young children by a religious leader.
"It is an awful breach of the trust placed in him by the victims and their families, and I cannot begin to imagine what impact the revelation of his offending has had on them."
3. There has been a “disturbing” rise in the amount of child sexual abuse material, which has been produced by children who have been tricked into filming themselves on webcams by online predators.
New data shows that in the first six months of 2020, 44% of all the child sexual abuse content dealt with by the Internet Watch Foundation (IWF) involved self-generated material.
This is up 15 percentage points on 2019 when, of the 132,676 web pages actioned, almost a third (38,424 or 29%) contained self-generated imagery. Self-generated content can include child sexual abuse content, created using webcams, sometimes in the child’s own room, and then shared online.
In some cases, children are groomed, deceived or extorted into producing and sharing a sexual image or video of themselves.
The IWF is the UK charity responsible for finding and removing images and videos of children suffering sexual abuse from the internet. Some of the videos IWF analysts find and remove from the internet contain Category A material – the most severe level of abuse which includes penetrative sexual activity.
Susie Hargreaves OBE is CEO of the IWF. She said parents need to have frank discussions with their children about the internet and the potential dangers of being online.
She said: “Sadly, no child is ever entirely safe from being targeted by predators who are on the look out for children to manipulate. If a child is unsupervised, and has a device with a camera and the internet, there is a possibility that, very quickly, they could be groomed and coerced.
“You may think your child is safe in their bedroom, but even there, they may have been approached by a predator. From there, they can be blackmailed, coerced, or bullied into making videos of themselves for these criminals.
“That we are seeing even more of these videos is a disturbing development, and we would urge parents to speak frankly to their children about the kind of criminals who may be waiting out there.
“The internet is a brilliant place, but we need to make sure everyone is safe while using it.”
Images and videos of online child sexual abuse can be reported anonymously to the IWF
4. A man who was acting as an armourer to criminals and storing the weapons and materials to make explosives at the home of a vulnerable man he claimed to be caring for has been jailed for eight years.
The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) said that Michael Green, 31, of Micawber Street in the Toxteth area of Liverpool, had a detailed knowledge of the world of firearms and munitions. He had acquired firearms, ammunition, and items that could be used to construct explosives. Police raids at his home and the home of a vulnerable man in the Liverpool area uncovered rifles, ammunition and materials to make explosives.
The raids also revealed equipment that could be used to adapt or engineer weapons, together with books, manuals and diagrams of the same nature.
The CPS said that Green was an armourer who had weapons, ammunitions and the wherewithal to make explosives so that he could provide them to whoever wanted them to commit serious crimes.
On 6 July 2018, police executed a raid on the home of a vulnerable man in the Liverpool area. They found a whole host of weapons in a wardrobe in a locked room at the flat. Green’s fingerprints were on many of the weapons. Police went on to raid Green’s home in Micawber Close and found equipment and materials to make explosives.
The man, who was then 52, told police that the room had been locked and used by Michael Green, who was acting as his carer. Green also used the details of the man to make purchases from Amazon and PayPal of items connected to weapons. One of the giveaways that it was Green buying the items was that he also used the same details to buy personalised items for members of his family.
On 15 July 2018, Green attended at St Anne Street Police Station and was arrested on suspicion of possession of a firearm without a certificate and remained silent. He went on to deny the items were his and blamed the vulnerable male but the overwhelming forensic evidence led to him eventually accepting his guilt.
He pleaded guilty three charges of possession of a firearm and ammunition without a certificate and seven charges of being in possession of an explosive substance. Michael Green was sentenced to eight years in jail.